An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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Babylon

Pythagoras

Pythagoras (c570 – c495 BC) was a Greek philosopher and mathematician and probably best known today for the theorm relating to right-angled triangles that is named after him. However, it has been shownpythagoras-statue that it was known at least a thousand years earlier in Egypt, Babylon and China(a).

>In 2021 Dr Daniel Mansfield, a mathematician at the University of New South Wales discovered that a 3,700-year-old Babylonian clay tablet illustrates the use of what we call ‘Pythagorean triples’ in dividing land, 1,100 years before Pythagoras!(g)<

Although born in Samos he eventually moved to Croton in Magna Graecia, now southern Italy. There, he established a quasi-religious sect of what were in effect were number worshippers.

Wikipedia notes(c) that “Aristotle claimed that the philosophy of Plato closely followed the teachings of the Pythagoreans, and Cicero repeats this claim: Platonem ferunt didicisse Pythagorea omnia (“They say Plato learned all things Pythagorean”). Bertrand Russell, in his A History of Western Philosophy, contended that the influence of Pythagoras on Plato and others was so great that he should be considered the most influential of all Western philosophers.”

Mark Adams in his Meet Me in Atlantis[1070] has touched on the possible Pythagorean influence on Plato’s use of numbers in his Dialogues. With this in mind, Adams visited the late Ernest G. McClain the author of a highly original idea, namely that details contained in Plato’s Atlantis story can be explained in terms of mathematical/musical theory. This was expressed in his 1978 book, The Pythagorean Plato[1082], which can be read online(b), but, be warned, most will find this very technical offering rather heavy going.

In 2010, Dr. Jay Kennedy, an American at the University of Manchester, also claimed to have found evidence of Pythagorean influence in Plato’s dialogues claiming that they contain a regular mathematical structure which relates them to an ancient 12-note musical scale. “Kennedy’s breakthrough, published in the journal Apeiron this week, is based on stichometry: the measure of ancient texts by standard line lengths. Kennedy used a computer to restore the most accurate contemporary versions of Plato’s manuscripts to their original form, which would consist of lines of 35 characters, with no spaces or punctuation. What he found was that within a margin of error of just one or two percent, many of Plato’s dialogues had line lengths based on round multiples of twelve hundred.”(e) A critique(f) of Kennedy’s theory by Professor Andrew Gregory of University College London should be read for balance.

An example of Plato’s regard for specific numbers is his idea that 5,040 is a perfect number and is the ideal population for a polis (city). It is a number divisible by all integers from 1 to 10, which would have had even greater significance prior to the invention of decimals. Some of the other factoids claimed for this number are really scary or at least thought-provoking(d).

(a) https://www.storyofmathematics.com/greek_pythagoras.html

>(b) Wayback Machine (archive.org)<

(c) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato#Plato_and_Pythagoras

(d) https://joedubs.com/5040-the-perfect-number/

(e) https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/jun/29/plato-mathematical-musical-code

(f) https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1359825/1/Andrew%20Gregory.pdf

>(g) Babylonians used Pythagorean theorem 1,000 years before it was ‘invented’ in ancient Greece | Live Science<

Millette, Louis

Louis Millette is a Canadian commentator who claims to have identified the location of Atlantis in the region of the Guadalquivir River in Spain’s Andalusia, maintaining that Tartessos, Tarshish and Atlantis were all the same. He has posted a set of three satellite images (d) to support his contention, unfortunately, I cannot see anything that might be related to Atlantis. His brief video clip(e) is equally uninformative.

However, Millette is a firm believer in extraterrestrial visitors(a), which for me is sufficient reason to consider him an unreliable researcher. He also claims to have located the ‘Hanging Gardens of Babylon’ in Nineveh, (now on the outskirts of Iraq’s city of Mosul), an idea already proposed by Stephanie Dailey of Oxford University as early as 1992(c) and later (2020) adopted by Anthony Woods. Even more provocative is the suggestion from Constantinos Ragazas that the correct title should be The Hanging Gardens of Göbekli Tepe!(f)

Millette promises startling revelations regarding Stonehenge in June 2015. However, a brief posting(g)  on the academia.edu website, consisting of some text and three images reveals nothing!

(a) https://www.ancient-origins.net/unexplained-phenomena/ancient-history-ufos-and-unclassified-document-oppenheim-and-einstein-001384

(c) The Hanging Gardens of … Nineveh? (archive.org) *

(d) https://yourshot.nationalgeographic.com/profile/332999/ (link broken) 

(e) https://youtu.be/LvrW_Jwintc

(f) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271076011_The_Hanging_Gardens_of_Gobekli_Tepe

(g) https://www.academia.edu/12615336/Stonehenge_the_cycle_of_life_Louis_view_2015_

Ninus, King

King Ninus is frequently attributed as the builder of Nin-eveh, in which his name is preserved. Nineveh is today encircled by the modern city of Mosul in Iraq and is reputed to have been the largest city in the world 2,700 years ago. Ashley Cowie published a short paper on the fall of Nineveh in 612 BC(e).

Controversially, Nineveh has recently been claimed(a) as the true location of the legendary “Hanging Gardens” rather than Babylon as a result of an earlier mistranslation! A more radical idea has come from Constantinos Ragazas, who insists that Göbekli Tepe is the site of the Hanging Gardens(d)!

He is also sometimes identified with the biblical Nimrod (Nimrud), Zoroaster(b), while Alexander Hislop in The Two Babylons[1135] equates Ninus with Tammuz, Osiris, Adonis and Bacchus(c).

Ninus’ wife, Semiramis, who reputedly succeeded him to the throne of Assyria, is remembered in legends throughout the Middle East.

Anton Mifsud used the reign of Ninus as an anchor for his preferred date for the destruction of Atlantis of around 2200 BC. He points out[209] that Eumelos of Cyrene dated the demise of Plato’s island to the reign of Ninus and links this with the calculation of the Roman historian Aemilius Sura (2nd cent. BC)  who placed the reign of Ninus around 2192 BC. A number of other authorities attribute similar dates to his reign as recorded by John Jackson in volume one of his 1752 Chronological Antiquities[1555.251]. The collapse of the Egyptian Old Kingdom also took place around 2200 BC(e).

David Rohl, a leading advocate for a radical revision of the accepted chronology of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East, identifies Nimrod as the great-grandson of Noah and goes further with a claim[230] that he was also known as Enmerkar, King of Uruk, and places his reign around 2900 BC. On the other hand, The American Encyclopaedia opts for a date circa 1230 BC.

(a) The Hanging Gardens of … Nineveh? (archive.org) *

(b) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninus

(c) https://www.cbcg.org/twobaby/sect221.html

(d) https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271076011_The_Hanging_Gardens_of_Gobekli_Tepe 

(e) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1458327.stm 

(f) August 10 612 BC: Nineveh, the Largest City in the World, Fell | Ancient Origins (ancient-origins.net)

 

Bidez, Joseph (L)

Joseph Bidez (1867–1945) was Professor of Classical Philology and the History of Philosophy, at theJoseph_Bidez_1867-1945 University of Ghent in Belgium. His 1938 paper, Eos: Ou, Platon Et LOrient[1212],  explored possible eastern influences on Plato’s writings and concluded that many of the striking features in his description of Atlantis were borrowed from cities such as Babylon, Ecbatana and Susa via the writings of Herodotus.

Ogyges

Ogyges was the founder and king of Thebes in Greece. During his reign a devastating flood ruined the country to such an extent that it remained without kings until the reign of Cecrops. In a 2002 article(b) in the Times of Malta, Anton Mifsud informed us that “the classical historian Eumalos of Cyrene wrote that the King of Atlantis at the time of the cataclysm was Ogyge whose nephew King Ninus of Babylon lived in the late third millennium BC.”

Some writers have identified the Flood of Ogyges with the Flood of Deucalion. It is more likely that they were separate events and were part of the series of floods noted by Plato [Tim.22 & Crit.111-112].

Frank Joseph in Survivors of Atlantis claimed that Plato in his Laws (Bk.III.677a), dated the Ogygian flood to less than two thousand years before his time.>However, the text is usually translated as you mean that these things were unknown to the men of those days for thousands upon thousands of years and that one or two thousand years ago some of them were revealed” The Greek word used ‘myrios’ means 10,000 or a large but indefinite number just as the equivalent English word ‘myriad’ is used today.

Unsurprisingly, there is no consensus among other ancient commentators regarding the date of the Ogygian Flood. Varro the Roman writer offers a date of 2136 BC, while Julius Africanus suggests 1793 BC.<

Oliver D.Smith maintained that it was the flood of Ogyges that destroyed Atlantis and argued that this event occurred long before the Flood of Deucalion(a).

P.P.Flambas has suggested[1368] that either Meltwater Pulses 1b or 1c may have led to the inundations remembered by the Greeks as the Flood of Ogyges!

(a) https://atlantipedia.ie/samples/archive-3062/ *

(b) https://timesofmalta.com/articles/view/on-the-track-of-atlantis.168843

 

Garden of Eden *

 The Garden of Eden, like Atlantis, has excited the imagination of many over the centuries. Its location has been the subject of what was sometimes wild speculation that offered a range of locations compared with the variety of sites proposed for Atlantis.

The traditional belief was that the ‘Garden’ had been situated in Mesopotamia between the Euphrates and Tigris as noted in the Bible. Athanasius Kircher, who is better known to many for his speculative map of Atlantis located in the Atlantic Ocean also produced a plan of the Garden of Eden in what is now southern Iraq. David J. Gibson (1904-1966) arrived at a similar conclusion placing ‘Eden’ just south of Baghdad in his book, The Land of Eden Located, now available online(t).

The T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism offers a clue to the sort of difficulties that ‘Garden seekers’ must deal with, in the Garden of Eden entry. “as an earthly garden, its specific location within both the Hebrew Bible and Second Temple literature. Thus, some texts place it in the east (Gen 2:8; 1En.32; Jub 8:16; 2 En. [rec.32] 42:3, 65:10; Philo QG 1:7; Leg 1:56; Josephus, Ant. 1.3), while others place it in the west (Gen 3:24; Josephus, JW 2.155), north (Ezek 28:13; 1En. 61.1), or northwest (1 En.24-25, 70:3).”(ap)

More recently, Robert McRoberts in an article about the rivers of Eden included a map by Arianna Ravenswood, who placed Eden northwest of Babylon in what is now the Iraqi Province of Diyala(u).

Within the same region is a submerged location at the head of the Persian Gulf promoted by Juris Zarins (1945- ).(w)  In his theory, the Bible’s Gihon River would correspond with the Karun River in Iran, and the Pishon River would match the Wadi Batin river system that had drained the now dry, but once quite fertile central part of the Arabian Peninsula. His suggestion about the Pishon River is supported by James A. Sauer (1945–1999) formerly of the American Center of Oriental Research although strongly criticized by the archaeological community(x).

A number of commentators have suggested that the site of Eden is now under water, where lower sea levels during the Ice Age would have revealed land now submerged, such as in the Persian Gulf. The Red Sea has also been proposed.

garden-eden-kircher1

Kircher’s Garden of Eden

The conventional idea has been enhanced in the opinion of some by the discoveries of the German archaeologist, Klaus Schmidt, who believed that his excavations at Göbekli Tepe in Turkey have unearthed artefacts dating to 8000 BC when the people there changed from hunting and gathering to agriculture. This region also contains Ur and Harran, mentioned in the Old Testament and since Göblekli Tepe is located between the Tigris and Euphrates and is within view of the Taurus Mountains, it conforms remarkably to the topographical description of Eden in the Bible. Tom Knox speculated on this in an article in the UK’s Daily Mail Online(aa).

It was no great surprise when I found at that least one commentator has proposed Göbekli Tepe and the surrounding area was the site of the Garden of Eden(au).

Garold Spire jr, an American researcher, offers a strong case for placing Eden in southern Turkey at the Karaca Dag shield-volcano. He studied the sacred books of the Abrahamic religions and drew up a short list of characteristics that the Garden must have;

1) It must have been warm enough to be comfortable without protective clothing. Gen 2:25.

2) It must be uphill geographically, due to the fact that four rivers exited

from it, these are the Euphrates, the Tigris, the Pishon, and the Gihon. Gen 2:10-14

3) The Pishon must compass or border Havila where there is gold and onyx. Gen 2:11, 12.

4)The Gihon must compass or border the whole land of Cush. Gen 2:13

5) It must account for a flaming sword on its east side. Gen 3:24

6) It must be well watered, Gen 13:10 by a mist (in Hebrew) not rain, Gen 2:5-6, which came up from the earth.

Spire maintains that his Turkish location has all these features(an).

Christopher Columbus believed that the source of the Orinoco River, in what is now known as Venezuela had been the location of Eden. Antonio de León Pinelo (1590-1660) was a Spanish chronicler who spent some years in South America and was also convinced that the Garden of Eden had been situated between the great rivers of South America(k)!

The imaginative Augustus Le Plongeon claimed the Yucatan as the location of the ‘Garden’(s) an idea endorsed by his wife, Alice Dixon Le Plongeon.

In more recent times, Ramiro Gonzales Yaksic (1966- ), the author of Earthly Paradise: The Garden of the Andes [1055] in which he claims to have identified the biblical Garden of Eden in his native Bolivia(ar). Dieter Groban has written in support of Yaksic(as).

James Bailey published Sailing to Paradise [0150] in 1994, some years before Yaksic’s book, in which he added further support for his Atlantis in America contention. Additionally, he placed the Garden of Eden somewhere on the Bolivian Altiplano.

[0150] in 1994, some years before Yaksic’s book, in which he added further support for his Atlantis in America contention. Additionally, he placed the Garden of Eden somewhere on the Bolivian Altiplano.

General Gordon of Khartoum fame was so impressed by the island of Preslin in the Seychelles that he declared it to be the Garden of Eden and its famed Coco de Mer and breadfruit plants to be the Tree of Life and the Tree of Good and Evil. Science writer, Karl Shuker, has written an extensive article, Forbidden Fruit, for the January 2016 edition of Fortean Times, in which he gives the background to Gordon’s obsession and his inability to garner any serious support for it.

At the beginning of the 20th century, it was reported(r) that G. F. Becker (1847-1919) a geologist with the USGS nominated Luzon in the Philippines as the site of the biblical ‘Garden’, while Sven Hedin (1865-1952) a much-decorated Swedish geographer chose Janaidar a mythical city in Central Asia.

George H. Cooper, the American writer, identified Salisbury Plain [0236.111] as the Garden of Eden along with its Wiltshire river system matching the Euphrates and Tigris in the Genesis story. W. Comyns Beaumont chose Britain’s Glastonbury as the site of the original Garden.

In the middle of the last century, a Baptist preacher, Elvy E. Callaway, announced that the Garden had been located in the vicinity of Bristol, Florida(j).

David Rohl has studied the matter in great detail [230] and located the ‘Garden’ in the northern Iranian province of East Azerbaijan near the city of Tabriz(ad)(aj). Rohl’s reasoning is worthy of study and perhaps a comparison with the views of Emilio Spedicato, who offers his explanation for placing Eden in Pakistan’s Hunza Valley in two papers on the Internet(b)(y). Rohl was partly inspired by the work of Reginald A. Walker [1388/9].

The inventive David Hatcher Childress published an article in issue 31 of the Atlantis Rising magazine with the title of Central Asia’s Ancient Heart and a subtitle that asks the question ‘Could Afghanistan Once Have Been the Garden of Eden?’ He then proceeds to offer a couple of pages about ancient Mongolia, with little reference to either Afghanistan or the Garden of Eden!

Andrew Collins claims [073] that the original Mesopotamian name for Eden was Kharsag, a view echoed by the late Christian O’Brien(q).  O’Brien’s nephew, Edmund Marriage, identifies the Bekka Valley in Lebanon as the location of Eden of Genesis. A new Lebanese location site is the subject of a website and forum(h)(i).    An excerpt from O’Brien’s book, relating to Eden,  can be read online(v).

Ari Zuker bravely suggests that the land of Israel was the Garden of Eden(ao). John Appelt, an American pastor also supports this idea (at).

The Sabbah brothers, Roger and Messod, controversially place Eden in Egypt [310] and offer a range of evidence to support this contention. Ralph Ellis has also opted for Egypt in his book, Eden in Egypt[0951] and claims that Adam and Eve were in reality, Akhenaton and Nefertiti! Ellis also supports his theory with two online papers providing excerpts from his books(o)(p).

A Christian website, logoschristian.org, used to also claim that Eden had been located in the eastern Nile Delta, specifically named Al Mansura. In 1933, John G. Jackson wrote a paper advocating an African origin for the legend of the Garden of Eden. Jackson’s extreme Afrocentric views may have coloured his view of this subject!

Further to the west is the Tunisian town of Oudna, which has been nominated as Eden by one Patrick Archer on his somewhat sparse website(d).

Gerald Wells also identified some of his Algerian Atlantis territories as having included the biblical Garden of Eden(aq).

Another African location was put forward by Georg Hinzpeter over half a century ago when he suggested that the Ethiopian plateau had been the home of Adam & Eve before their eviction(z).

Stephen E. Franklin has also opted for an African location for the Garden of Eden, placing it south of the Ahaggar Mountains near the Wadi Tafanasset in southern Algeria.(ah) He also claims that Mt. Tahat, the highest peak in the Ahaggars, was, according to Franklin, the original Atlas mountain referred to by Herodotus as the home of the Atlantes (sometimes Atarantes(ai)). Sprague De Camp noted [194.191] that Paul Borchardt also identified the ancient Mt. Atlas with the Ahaggar Mountains rather than the Atlas Mountains of the Maghreb! I should add that this identification of Mt. Atlas remains moot.

In 2014, Stan Deyo chose Tanzania as the location of the Garden of Eden(h). Paulo Riven has also supported the region as the site of the ‘Garden’(ak). This idea has been echoed elsewhere and more recently on a website dealing with the history of Israel(f) and on a Christian website where the Ngorongoro Crater is specified(g).

Carl Seaver has also offered an African location for the Garden. In a 2022 article, he reports that according to recent research, Botswana is the most likely location of the Garden and where humans originated. Eden sat in the Kalahari Desert, which used to be a wetland where the early humans lived. During this time, Lake Makgadikgadi stretched from Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe(am).

In 2023 an African location for the Garden was again proposed by journalist, Tom Hale, who wrote(al)  “The so-called Cradle of Humankind can be found in South Africa around 50 kilometers (31 miles) northwest of Johannesburg. This site is home to the largest concentration of human ancestral remains anywhere in the world. Among the thousands of fossils found here, researchers have unearthed the remains of Australopithecus, an early ape-like human species dated to around 3.4 to 3.7 million years old.

It wasn’t until 200,000 to 300,000 years ago that modern Homo sapiens evolved. Once again, Africa was the location of this development, with modern humans most likely first emerging somewhere around modern-day Ethiopia. 

So, if we’re looking for a scientific Garden of Eden, it looks like South Africa and Ethiopia are our best bet. Whether these sites were once home to a paradise where four rivers once met remains to be seen, however.” 

What may appear just as implausible to many is the claim by Felice Vinci[019], that the Eden story was imported from northern Europe, specifically from Finnish Lapland(af). At the end of the 19th century, William Fairfield Warren placed the Garden in the Arctic [0078].

Even more incredible is the assertion by the likes of William C. Chappell that the Garden of Eden was situated in the United States. His Mormon-inspired views are available as a free eBook(c) on the Internet. Interestingly, Jackson County, Missouri was the location of Eden revealed by Joseph Smith(ac). the founder of Mormonism and well-known collector of wives.

A more ‘commercial’ suggestion has come from Dennis Brooks who suggested that Tarpon Springs, Florida, was originally the location of the Garden of Eden and that Tampa Bay contained the port of Atlantis.

The Urantia Book promotes the idea of two Edens, one near Cyprus and a second further east! In 2003, Robert Sarmast compiled a list of similarities between Plato’s account of Atlantis and the description of the Garden of Eden in the Urantia Book(l).

In his 2004 book Finding Atlantis he claimed one of the Edens, noted in The Urantia Book, along with Atlantis had been situated near Cyprus, now in waters a mile deep! Two expeditions were organised to verify his claims, but nothing conclusive was found. Although very little has been heard from Sarmast in recent years, in 2018, Robert S. Bates attempted to breathe new life into Sarmast’s ideas that the Mediterranean region around Cyprus had been home to both Atlantis and the Garden of Eden(ae).

Stephen Oppenheimer has pointed out[004] that Genesis 2:8 reads that “the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden”. He argues (p.409) that this supports the idea of a ‘paradise’ in the Sundaland region. However, Oppenheimer does not equate Eden with Atlantis.

As Monty Python used to say “now for something completely different” – The North Pole. This suggestion has come from Gene Matlock who advocated that ‘Eden was the North Pole’ in a paper of the same name(ab).

The Garden of Eden has been suggested by some as another name for Atlantis, representing as it does a mythical time of peace and abundance. However, Eden is never spoken of in terms of military might and commercial success attributed to Atlantis.  One of the better-known proponents of this idea of an Atlantean Eden was the late Professor Arysio dos Santos(a) who was convinced that it was located in the South China Sea before the ending of the last Ice Age submerged large areas of Sundaland. Confusingly, he referred to Eden as ‘Lemurian Atlantis’, but added that “This Lemurian Atlantis of ours should not be confused with the purely fanciful counterparts of the Theosophists and other such followers of Mme. Blavatsky. Their ‘Lemuria’ is a hypothetical sunken continent of the mid-Pacific region, one which never existed at all.

Shortly before his death in 2005, Santos published [320] his theories, expanding on material that he had made available on the Internet for some years. Frank Joseph also claims [106][107] that the Garden of Eden was located on the lost island of ‘Lemuria’ located in the Pacific.

Bill Hanson, who has authored a number of books on ancient ‘mysteries’, has recently written a work [352] that links the Garden of Eden with Atlantis. He identifies five similarities between the two accounts:

  • Both prehistoric locations are regarded as ‘lost paradises’
  • The four rivers of Eden are reflected in the four waterways of Poseidon the island capital of Atlantis.
  • Atlantis started with ten kings and the Bible speaks of ten patriarchs.
  • Zeus destroyed Atlantis because mortals and gods mated, whereas the Bible records the mating of the ‘sons of God’ and human females.
  • Atlantis was flooded just as the Age of the Patriarchs ended with the flood of Noah.

The late Joseph Robert Jochmans identified(g) Atlantis with Eden in a comprehensive article on his website. John Nichols also wrote a long article(e) identifying Atlantis with the Garden of Eden and placing it on the Celtic Shelf about a hundred miles off the coast of France due west of Brest.

Frederick Dodson in a hefty 523-page book [989] claims an Atlantis-Garden of Eden connection(n). In 2018, the Catalan researcher, José Luis Espejo also equated Atlantis with the Garden of Eden[1607].

In 2022, a writer, hiding behind the nom de plume of ‘gserpent’, produced a lengthy article blending Atlantis, Eden and Lemuria into one heap of literary manure(ag).

Currently. the sadly benighted Iraq is trying to lure tourists to spend their holidays in ‘the Garden of Eden’(m)!

 

(a) http://www.lost-civilizations.net/atlantis-corroborating-evidence-page-12.html

(b) kharsag (grazian-archive.com) 

(c) http://losttruthfound.com/gardenofedenfound.pdf

(d) https://patrickofatlantis.com/

(e) https://jjswn35.wordpress.com/article/atlantis-eden-how-to-find-2vfxjftuay98o-9/

(f) https://sites.google.com/site/tribesofatlantis/Home/the-garden-of-eden

(g) See: Archive 3602

(h) The Garden of Eden – Found in Rashaya El-Wadi – the-lebanon.com (archive.org)  or  Archive 3182

(i) https://www.christianforums.com/threads/the-garden-of-eden-origin-of-agriculture-found-near-rashaya-el-wadi-lebanon.7535161/*

(j) Weird Florida (archive.org) *

(k) See: Archive 2999

(l See: Archive 3603

(m https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/iraqs-new-venture-holidays-in-the-garden-of-eden-882635.html

(n) https://web.archive.org/web/20160409211234/http://www.ancient-atlantis.com:80/eve-on-the-island-of-apples/

(o) https://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/eden-egypt-part-1-001827

(p) https://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/eden-egypt-part-2-001831

(q)  https://www.goldenageproject.org.uk/obrienvsitchin.php

(r) https://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/83084172?searchTerm=Atlantis discovered&searchLimits=sortby=dateAsc

(s) https://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/126128214?searchTerm=Atlantis discovered&searchLimits=sortby=dateAsc

(t) https://nabataea.net/djgibson.html

(u) https://web.archive.org/web/20190916073848/https://theancientneareast.com/the-four-rivers-of-eden/

(v) https://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-ancient-writings/what-happened-eden-alternative-translation-tells-very-different-story-021833.

(w) https://www.ldolphin.org/eden/

(x) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juris_Zarins

(y) https://www.emiliospedicato.it/geography-and-numerics-of-eden-kharsag-and-paradise-sumerian-and-enochian-sources-versus-the-genesis-tale/

(z) Atlantis, Vol.17, No. 2/3, April 1964, p.27

(aa) https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1157784/Do-mysterious-stones-mark-site-Garden-Eden.html

(ab) http://www.viewzone.com/edenpole.html

(ac) https://www.fairlatterdaysaints.org/answers/Joseph_Smith/Prophet/Garden_of_Eden_in_Missouri

(ad) http://www.british-israel.ca/Eden.htm  

(ae) EAP-Essay-FINAL.pdf (evolving-souls.org)

(af) The climatic optimum, the Indo-European paradise and the Garden of Eden – The Tapestry of Time (larazzodeltempo.it) 

(ag) Atlantis: The Garden of Eden – secretsoftheserpent (archive.org) 

(ah) https://neros.lordbalto.com/ChapterEight.htm

(ai) W. W. How, J. Wells, A Commentary on Herodotus, BOOK IV, chapter 184 (tufts.edu)

(aj) https://davidrohl.blogspot.com/2012/02/ 

(ak) https://sites.google.com/site/tribesofatlantis/Home/the-garden-of-eden 

(al) https://www.iflscience.com/where-is-the-garden-of-eden-and-where-would-it-be-located-today-66925 

(am) https://www.historydefined.net/where-would-the-garden-of-eden-be-today/ 

(an) (99+) The Garden of Eden-allegory or archaeology | Gari Spire – Academia.edu 

(ao) (99+) THE GARDEN OF EDEN IN GALILEE | Ari Zuker – Academia.edu 

(ap) (99+) Garden of Eden – Paradise | Eshbal Ratson – Academia.edu 

(aq) https://medium.com/@geraldjohnwells/atlantis-and-the-garden-of-eden-a-contemporary-view-of-revelation-4a11067994d7

(ar) Archive 2331 

(as) https://www.facebook.com/Groben.Turismo/posts/926029544094509  

(at) https://ebible.com/questions/790-what-is-the-location-of-the-garden-of-eden  (third item)

(au) The Garden of Eden Discovered?Spiritual Core Theory

 

Bible *

The Bible offers no direct reference to Atlantis, but this is not to be seen as proof of its non-existence, when you consider that in spite of the fact that the Hebrews were in Egypt for hundreds of years, the Bible does not mention the pyramids either and they most certainly did then and still do, exist.

The Bible has been invoked as a justification for everything from war to slavery. It has been one of the most divisive books ever, having been instrumental in the creation of hundreds, if not thousands, of competing Christian sects over the last two millennia. It is assumed that any theory, religious or secular that can be shown to have a biblical foundation will automatically have enhanced credibility.

Jean De Serres, the 16th-century historian, was probably the first to link Atlantis with the Bible when he wrote that Atlantis had been located in the Holy Land. Lewis Spence[259.33] accused Huet, Borchart and Vossius, in the 16th and 17th centuries of using ‘ingenious misreading of the Pentateuch’ to claim that the Platonic story of Atlantis was, in reality, a version of patriarchal history. In a similar vein, in 1726 a French lawyer, Claude Olivier, wrote of his conviction that the ten tribes of Israel were to be equated with the ten kingdoms of Atlantis.

The Book of Genesis in particular has inspired speculation regarding a possible link between the Bible and the Atlantis narrative. Ignatius Donnelly in his seminal Atlantis: The Antidiluvian World, devoted Chapter Six to ‘demonstrating’ that Genesis held a history of Atlantis(o).

Therefore, I advise that any new scriptural interpretation must be treated with extreme caution. With that in mind, I mention that an American researcher, J. D. Brady, who claims to be a scriptural scholar and as such has identified Atlantis, drawing on chapters 26-28 of Ezekiel. He refers to the Atlanteans as Tyrrhenians and names their leader as Satan! He claims that the Tyre referred to in these chapters was an island named Tyrus that Plato knew as Atlantis. He offers a range of data to suggest that this Tyrus was not the Tyre we know today located in Lebanon. Brady claims with great certainty that the remains of Atlantis are to be found in the Bay of Troy! A 2014 book[1016] by David Hershiser, Beyond the Pillars of Hercules, has taken up this idea that the reference in Ezekiel was concerned with Atlantis.

Not content with identifying Atlantis, Brady also claims to know the location of the Ark of the Covenant, saying that It is currently secreted in an underground treasure crypt on Lemnos Island.”(b)

H.S. Bellamy, the Austrian researcher, also produced a volume[097], The Book of Revelation is History, devoted to demonstrating that the last book of the New Testament is a coded description of the catastrophes that accompanied the capture of our Moon! He claimed that the reference to the ten horns is an allusion to the ten Atlantean kings. He also interpreted the Book of Jeremiah I & II as well as Ezekiel as containing references to aspects of the Atlantis story. Earlier, Kurt Bilau had also been seduced by the theories of Hans Hörbiger and also like Bellamy endeavoured to use the Book of Revelations to support this belief.

However, R Cedric Leonard does offer(a) an interesting comparison of a passage in the Old Testament with the classical writers:

“And it came to pass when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and they took them wives of all which they chose…

There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same mighty men (heroes) which were of old, men of renown.” (Genesis 6:1-2,4)

This passage has been frequently invoked to support the daft idea that extraterrestrial visitors had intercourse with human females, a contention that was debunked by Klaus Aschenbrenner some years ago(l).

 “The mixture between gods and men, which is reported in the sixth chapter of Genesis of the Old Testament, is to be interpreted in a similar way: “Then the children of God looked after the daughters of men, how beautiful they were, and took them for wives, which they wanted … and begot them children.”

The fact that offspring resulted from this union clearly speaks for the earthly origin of those Divine beings. There is a genetic barrier that makes it difficult for similar species to mix. For example, if one tries to cross closely related animal species, such as horses and donkeys, the stallions of the resulting mixed forms of mule or hinny are sterile. We must therefore not expect any offspring from a connection between humans and higher extraterrestrial beings because of the certainly greater genetic differences.”

Leonard points out that this same passage in Genesis coincides with Plato’s history of the Atlanteans and highlights that Hesiod referred to the Titans, of which Atlas was one, as the ‘sons of heaven’.

Leonard also offers a more rational translation of Job 26:5-6 that strengthens this view that the Atlanteans and Titans are identical:

“The Titans tremble beneath the waters and the inhabitants thereof. Hell is naked before him, and destruction hath no covering”.

2011 saw the publication of Atlantis: The Eyewitnesses[749] by Walter Parks in which he also quoted extensively from the Book of Job, having claimed that it was written in 9619 BC and contained an eyewitness account of the catastrophe that destroyed Atlantis!

In 2007, David Stewart Jnr., a prominent Mormon writer, offered support for Flem-Ath’s ‘Atlantis in Antarctica’ theory in an article on his scripture history website(p).

Thorwald C. Franke has reviewed a range of theories that have sought to associate various aspects of Bible history with elements of the Atlantis story. Most are rather speculative, but Franke concludes(d) that “the Bible should not be underestimated: There could indeed be indirect hints to Plato’s Atlantis in the Bible!” Furthermore, he also suggested that A basic error is to consider the Bible as a source of information on the most ancient times of humankind. In truth, vast parts of the Bible were written only very late (since the 6th century BC). For the question of Atlantis, this is much too late!”

The biblical references to Tarshish are also used by those who equate it with Tartessos and in turn identify it as Atlantis. The location of Tarshish is a highly contentious issue with scholars unable to arrive at any clear consensus. However, there is some agreement that Tartessos had been located in Southern Spain. Some proponents of that idea not only consider Tarshish identical to Tartessos but to Atlantis as well. Richard Freund is a proponent of a Spanish Tartessos, which he also identifies with Atlantis and of course with the biblical Tarshish. This Bible connection was taken further in James Cameron’s 2017 (a) documentary, Atlantis Rising, which shows Simcha Jacobovici also linking Tarshish with Atlantis(h) and offering as ‘evidence’ for a linkage between Atlantis and the Jewish Temple, the design of the Hebrew menorah(g), which he claims is a representation of one half the concentric rings of Plato’s city of Atlantis. This foolish idea is not new, as it has already been suggested by Prof. Yahya Ababni(f). Georgeos Diaz-Montexano has also considered this as a possibility(k).

Turning the tables on the idea of the Bible supporting the story of Atlantis, Marjorie Braymer[198.30] wrote that Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th cent. AD) was the first to use Plato’s Atlantis to support the veracity of the Bible.

Another line of investigation might be the suggested parallels between Greek mythology and Genesis(c). A 2023 paper by Neil Godfrey offers some comments on  Plato’s Timaeus and the Biblical Creation Accounts [2066] by Russell E. Gmirkin supporting the idea that the creation of the world and the story of the first humans in Genesis both draw directly on Plato’s famous account of the origins of the universe, mortal life and evil containing equal parts science, theology and myth(n).

A paper on the Academia.edu website(e) by M. De Rosa argues that Atlantis was the ‘Beast’ in the Book Of Revelation!

More recently, a Dutch commentator, Leon Elshout, has also written extensively, in Dutch and English, linking Atlantis and Babylon(i) with details in the Book of Revelation. He claims “that there is a dualistic principle behind Atlantis, expressed by the twin pillars of Hercules and the twin kings, so that Atlantis was mirrored in time and space from Babylon AND Jerusalem.” He also claims that chapters 2 & 7 of the Book of Daniel offer mirror images of the Athenian-Atlantean conflict(m).

Among a number of odd ideas expressed by him is the suggestion that Tarshish was in Britain(j).

(a) See: https://web.archive.org/web/20170607013948/https://www.atlantisquest.com:80/Myth.html

(b)  https://www.ritmeyer.com/2008/05/15/the-ark-of-the-covenant-on-the-trail-again/

(c) https://njbiblescience.org/presentations/Greek%20Mythology%20and%20Genesis.pdf

(d) https://www.atlantis-scout.de/atlantis_bible.htm

(e) https://www.academia.edu/6336088/ATLANTIS_AS_THE_BEAST_IN_REVELATIONS

(f) https://mosestablet.info/en/menorah-tablet.html

(g) https://www.wnd.com/2017/02/ocean-explorer-atlantis-found-and-linked-to-jewish-temple/

(h) Lost City of Atlantis And Its Incredible Connection to Jewish Temple (archive.org) 

(i) https://roodgoudvanparvaim.nl/atlantis-as-a-theological-model-of-tzaphon-and-end-times-babylon-rev-17-18-and-the-storylines-of-atlantis-and-athens/

(j) https://roodgoudvanparvaim.nl/8-tarshish-as-great-britain-and-the-paradox-with-atlantis/

(k) https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2017/5/5/1659107/-Descendants-of-Lost-Atlantis-may-be-wait-for-it-Jews 

(l) They didn’t come from other stars – Atlantisforschung.de (atlantisforschung-de.translate.goog) 

(m) 1903.0463v1.pdf (vixra.org)

(n) https://vridar.org/2023/02/12/two-covenants-israel-and-atlantis-biblical-creation-accounts-platos-timaeus-critias-7f/ 

(o) https://sacred-texts.com/atl/ataw/ataw306.htm 

(p) http://scripturehistory.com/atlantisinantarctica.php (link broken) *