An A-Z Guide To The Search For Plato's Atlantis

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    I have now published my new book, Joining The Dots, which offers a fresh look at the Atlantis mystery. I have addressed the critical questions of when, where and who, using Plato’s own words, tempered with some critical thinking and a modicum of common sense.Read More »
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Nicolae Densusianu

Danube (River)

The River Danube is the second longest river in Europe, which was known to the ancient Greeks as ‘Istros’. It rises in Germany’s Black Forest and after passing through many countries, including four capital cities, it eventually empties into the Black Sea.

A number of researchers have associated the river with Plato’s Atlantis. One of the earliest was Nicolae Densusianu who proposed that Atlantis had been situated in ancient Dacia, his native Romania. Over a century later some of his ideas have been revived by other Romanian commentators such as Adrian Bucurescu and Alexandra Furdui. Densusian’s nationalism is now frowned upon and there is an understandable suspicion that his modern Romanian supporters may have similar underlying motivations.

There is a gorge on the Danube known as the Iron Gates which provides part of the boundary between Serbia and Romania. Densusianu located the Pillars of Heracles at the Iron Gates, an idea supported by Ticleanu, Constantin & Nicolescu who place Atlantis further west on the Pannonian Plain. However, Ranko Jakovlievic expressed the view that the Iron Gates section of the Danube was the location of Atlantis!

Related to this, is the claim by ‘Sherlock’ that Pindar’s Olympian Ode 3 suggested that the Pillars of Herakles had been situated at the confluence of the Seva and Danube rivers near modern Belgrade(b) .

>A recent book [1742] by Antonije Shkokljev & Slave Nikolovski–Katin also recount an ancient version of the ‘Labours of Hercules’ that took place in the Balkans.<

Christian and Siegfried Schoppe locate Atlantis east of the Danube Delta on Snake Island in the Black Sea an idea now adopted by George K. Weller(a) .

(a) https://www.ctq2.org/farmers-blog/comparison-of-platos-critias-with-george-k-wellers-concept-of-atlantis-and-its-location/

(b) https://sherlockfindsatlantis.wordpress.com/

Furdui. Alexandra

Alexandra Ioana Furdui, is Romanian by birth, an architect by profession, who now lives in Australia. Her interest in ancient history has resulted in a book entitled Island: Myth…Reality …or Both? [1598] in which she posits Atlantis as a large island in the antediluvian freshwater Black Sea ruled by the Titans of Greek mythology, some of whom later started another civilisation in the lower Danube, where she claims the Pillars of Herakles were situated, which is probably the result of being influenced by the earlier work of Nicolae Densusianu.

Bucurescu, Adrian

BurcurescuAdrian Bucurescu is a Romanian ethnographer and a prolific article writer and also the author of Dacia Secreta and Dacia Magica. He identifies the Black Sea and what is now mainland Romania as the home of Atlantis. He locates the Pillars of Hercules at the Danube gorge at the mouth of S-W Romanian river Cerna (also known as Acheron, Charon, Geryon) and that the capital of Atlantis was the city of Tulcea (Tul=atlas+Cea=land) at the Danube Delta.

>A recent book [1742] by Antonije Shkokljev & Slave Nikolovski–Katin have related an ancient version of the ‘Labours of Hercules’ based in the Balkan-Danube region.

Furthermore, Bucurescu claims that Plato originally said 5,000 not 9,000 years had elapsed between the Atlantean war and Solon’s visit to Egypt. He bases this idea on his claim that the works of the Greek philosophers were preserved in Arabic translations after the fall of Constantinople and that their numbers ‘5’ and ‘9’ were sufficiently similar to have led to a transcription error!(b)>This is difficult to accept as the Arabic character for nine is rather like our ‘9’, while the Arabic five is like our zero!<

Bucurescu’s ideas should be compared with those of Densusianu and the more recent book of Alexandra Furdui.

However, a further contribution on Graham Hancock’s website has him  listing the ten kingdoms (of Atlantis) extending over a much larger region, including Poland, Egypt and Sumeria(a)!

(a) https://grahamhancock.com/phorum/read.php?1,176280,176318

(b) https://grahamhancock.com/phorum/read.php?1,176280,176305#msg-176305

Thrace (L)

Thrace was an ancient kingdom, which according to Greek mythology was named after Thrax, the son of Ares, the ThraceGreek god of war. Some push back the origins of the Thracians to 3000 BC(b). Homer described the Thracians as allies of Troy. Today Thrace would occupy southeast Bulgaria along with adjacent parts of Greece and Turkey. Some have attempted to link Thrace with Atlantis(a). Abraham Akkerman suggests in Phenomenology of the Winter City[1179.98] that the inspiration for “Plato’s layout of his Ideal City on the island of Atlantis” may be found in Thrace. Keep in mind that situated just north of Thrace was Dacia, part of Romania, another Atlantis candidate.

Also See: Nicolae Densusianu, Romania

(a) https://www.home2b.nl/home2b-secret-history/secret-history-atlantis1.html

(b) https://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends/enigma-thracians-and-orpheus-myth-001743

Iron Gate(s), The

The Iron Gate(s) is the name given to a gorge on the River Danube that forms part of the boundary between Serbia and Romania. A century ago, Nicolae Densusianu proposed The Iron Gate as the location for the Pillars of Heracles, on the Danube in ancient Dacia, modern Romania.

>A recent book [1742] by Antonije Shkokljev & Slave Nikolovski–Katin have related an ancient version of the ‘Labours of Hercules’ based in the Balkan-Danube region.

Iron GatesRecently, Ranko Jakovljevic expressed the view that the Iron Gate section of the Danube in Serbia was the location of Atlantis.

A paper presented to the 2008 Atlantis Conference by Ticleanu, Constantin & Nicolescu [750.375] has the ‘Pillars of Heracles’ located at the Iron Gate but placed Atlantis a little further west on what is now the Pannonian Plain.

This minority view of Atlantis located in Eastern European is seen by a few commentators to be vindicated by the literate Vinca culture(b) of the Danubian region, although the Schoppes see the Vinca people as refugees from their original home in the Black Sea region(a).

For me, all those theories conflict with Plato’s unambiguous statement that the invading Atlanteans came from the west (Tim.25b & Crit.114c). In fact what Plato actually said was that the invasion came from the Atlantic Sea (pelagos). Although there is some disagreement about the location of this Atlantic Sea, all candidates proposed so far are west of both Athens and Egypt.

(a) https://web.archive.org/web/20190819053842/https://www.black-sea-atlantis.com/schoppe.pdf

(b) https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-europe/danube-valley-civilisation-script-oldest-writing-world-001343

Romania

Romania does not automatically leap to mind as a possible location for Atlantis, nevertheless, in 1913 a massive book by Nicolae Densusianu was published in which such a claim was made. The suggestion was made en passant in this large work, which is mainly concerned with the prehistoric evolution of civilisation in the Dacia region of Romania. The 1000-page+ book in English is available in its entirety on the Internet[1597].

The Pannonian Plain, now part of Hungary was formerly part of ancient Dacia. A paper was submitted to the 2008 Atlantis Conference in Athens by three Romanian researchers, M. Ticleanu, P. Constanin and R. Nicolescu proposing that this region had been the original location of Atlantis. This paper, together with a large number of maps, is now available on the internet(a).

The location of the Pillars of Heracles is also discussed in depth and the author not unexpectedly also locates them along the Danube (Pt3 – Ch.XVI). It is noteworthy that in ancient times the Danube was called Okeanos Potamos.

To what extent nationalistic motives were the moving force behind this noteworthy tome is difficult to ascertain, but the possibility should be borne in mind. However, his excessive nationalism, was popular during the communist regime, but is now deemed unacceptable and his work discredited.

Nevertheless, interest in Densusianu and aspects of his theories have seen a resurgence in books from researchers such as Adrian Bucurescu and Alexandra Furdui.

In the meantime, neighbouring Bulgaria had seen the unearthing of remarkable artefacts, including gold jewellery, dating to 3000 BC and is now claiming the discovery of rock temples in the Rhodope Mountains that are a thousand years older than the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilisations. Watch this space.

(a) https://www.scribd.com/doc/13105354/Atlantis-is-discovered-Atlantis-in-Middle-Danubian-Depression-Pannonian-Basin-a-new-location-of-Atlantis-Island?autodown=ppt

 

 

Densusianu, Nicolae

Nicolae Densusianu (1846-1911) was a Romanian ethnologist and folklorist, although he was born in Transylvania, at the time Nicolae_Densusianupart of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He claimed that ancient Dacia had been the centre of a widespread Pelasgian Empire. His major work, published posthumously, Prehistoric Dacia, includes the suggestion that Atlantis had been located in Dacia, now Romania. The text of this extensive book, in English[1597], is available in its entirety on the Internet.

His excessive nationalism, popular during the communist regime, is now deemed unacceptable and his work discredited.

*Nevertheless, interest in Densusianu and aspects of his theories have seen a resurgence in books from researchers such as Adrian Bucurescu and Alexandra Furdui.*

Densusianu’s work has also been recently echoed in two books by the Serbian historian, Ranko Jakovljevic, although he moves the focus further west from Romania to his own native Serbia.

 

Pannonian Plain

The Pannonian Plain or Basin including the Great Plain of Hungary is a pannonian 2large feature in central and Eastern Europe that had been an inland sea in prehistoric times(b). It was formerly part of ancient Dacia. A paper was submitted to the 2008 Atlantis Conference in Athens by three Romanian researchers, M. Ticleanu, P. Constanin and R. Nicolescu proposing this region as the original location of Atlantis. This paper, together with a large number of maps, is now available on the internet(a).

The Pannonian theory should be studied in conjunction with the substantial work of Nicolae Densusianu who proposed in 1913 that the Pillars of Heracles had been situated on the Danube, as well as the more recent views of Ranko Jakovljevic who also proposes a Danubian solution to the Atlantis mystery.

However, none of them explain the Atlantean invasion of Egypt and Athens coming from the west (Tim.25b & Crit.114c) !  In fact what Plato said was that the invasion came from the Atlantic Sea (pelagos). Although there is some disagreement about the location of this Atlantic Sea, all candidates proposed so far are west of both Athens and Egypt. Furthermore, there is no evidence, or even hint of a suggestion, that any peoples in the Pannonian region had control as far as “Tyrrhenia and Egypt”. Consequently, this Pannonian theory conflicts with the only unambiguous geographical description of Atlantean controlled territory provided by Plato.

(a) https://www.scribd.com/doc/13105354/Atlantis-is-discovered-Atlantis-in-Middle-Danubian-Depression-Pannonian-Basin-a-new-location-of-Atlantis-Island?autodown=ppt

(b) https://www.scribd.com/doc/12908242/The-Pannonian-Lake-Disappearance-in-the-Late-Uppermost-Pleistocene-Causes-and-ConsequencesBelgrade-2006